Looking Beyond The Horizon

Innovative Technologies & Services

Archive for the ‘fuel’ Category

Can this electric-car charging infrastructure make Israel greener?

Posted by evolvingwheel on January 21, 2008

A news article popped up in the media circle yesterday that got me all ears! Israel plans to make electric-car a reality by 2010. The government initiative is a path-breaking collaboration among a California based start-up, a Japanese-French auto maker, and a large global financial institution that recently got beaten up by sub-prime market disaster! Nevertheless, this could be a perfect example of how inclusive and proactive policies can realize a dream by juxtaposing corporate incentive, public benefit, and environmental consciousness in a region vulnerable to a continuous onslaught of terrorism.

You may read the news in detail by clicking the following links:




I am just impressed (and to certain extent skeptical!) about the grandiose picture of the project. Automaker Renault-Nissan will manufacture the cars and Better Place, a California start-up founded by former SAP executive Shai Agassi, will build the infrastructure, which may eventually consist of 500,000 charging points and up to 200 battery-exchange stations. Now that is some infrastructure to be placed together within next two years. I believe the planners have laid out the ecosystem trajectory associated with not only the development of such a network of service and change stations but also a continuous development of newer green technologies with better efficacy and cheaper cost. Just wondering, what if you invest billions of dollars to build these stations and in 5-7 years some other form of hybrid/solar/hydrogen powered technology got prevalent with much lower demand of frequent refills and change points? How would you recycle this network? Has the technology developed to the extent where older energy delivery models can be retrofitted with new form of energy distribution systems with minimal cost? whokilledtheelectriccar.jpg

In my earlier article on Brazil going to ethanol 30 years back, there are certain factors that played in sustaining the change out there for the long haul – first gasoline usage was not substituted by any other cheaper (cheaper than ethanol) type across the world from early 70s. So there was no cost-savings incentive challenging ethanol infrastructure development for years to come. Furthermore, Brazil developed flex vehicle that could use both types of energy with no major investment or switch of human habit. This cushioned any possible failure in embracing ethanol due to production problems, supply-chain impossibilities, cost-revenue issues, or lack in government’s commitment over the long haul. Now, is Israel thinking in that line too since future is full of uncertainties. shimon_peres.jpg

One thing for sure though – this effort will definitely instigate new research in battery and charging. When the implementation of new policies is mandated by the government and over time is absorbed by the population, the inertia sets in. This dynamic has a stability of its own as long as the engineering, financial, and government support continues to come. With increasing demand for better performance, R&D investments steer towards a particular technology supporting the infrastructure and money is re-invested to sharpen an evolving methodology. I hope this model succeeds and we use this great opportunity to initiate change in our lifestyles and behaviors for a better future!


Posted in automobile, Energy, Environment, fuel, Innovation, pollution | 1 Comment »

Tata Motor brings car of $2500 – Can India handle it?

Posted by evolvingwheel on January 10, 2008

First post of 2008! Hope this one talks about my interest for this year 🙂

So the Tata Motor Companyof India has finally accomplished an unprecedented feat by bringing a car that costs a meager $2500! From the post-independence era, Tata has been delivering indigenous solutions for the Indian automobile market and has become a household name when it comes to trucks and cars that can sustain the harsh environment of heat and monsoon and strained infrastructure. However, this time Tata has done something that could not only change the landscape of Indian automobile market but could also shakeout the socio-economic, environmental, and infrastructure aspects of a country beleaguered by poverty, income disparity, and an emerging middle class with increasing buying capacity. /photo.cms?msid=2684679

I am not talking here about the car itself or the business impact from the perspective of automobile industry. You can find all those in this link. What I am interested in is the short-term and long-term effect of bringing a car to the market that could invigorate a whole different buyer’s segment – the bottom of the pyramid (as claimed by Prof. Prahlad).

Let me bring few things into perspective and ask some critical questions.

  1. Buyer’s segment – two wheeler buyers or the ones with low income and somewhere between lower middle class and wannabe middle-class. Millions like that live both in cities and villages. Consider cities first- if the car ownership increases 4-6 fold, does India have that road infrastructure to support the traffic? Even today the country is struggling with new cars hitting the roads. How would this increased number be tackled by a antagonizing political environment fighting over draconian policy implementations and let aside implementing a overhaul change?
  2. In village side – who will take the onus of building roads to the deepest corners where these cars (and ridership) would penetrate? If this car sustains the environmental and infrastructure hardship and ends up surviving for more than 5 years on Indian roads, the explosion of ownership can be daunting. Just think about the environmental impact, recycling of scrap, and junk spare parts after usage!
  3. Now, implications on the positive side are enormous. I can see how cell phones changed the whole way of doing things in the cities and semi-rural areas. Social innovation entered deep into the countryside when fishermen would use cell phones to find out the wholesale market price and distribute their catch according to the prospects of profitability. This car can bring changes like that but in a more amplified scale!
  4. And then there are the prospects of employment style, pattern, location, and timing shifts. When a biker wouldn’t try to go beyond a certain distance and limit his/her business/profession according to those restrictions, this car could break down that deterrence and create whole new format of earning, living, and spending. There is a very good possibility of a nationwide economic and henceforth a social shift that could emerge from communities that fenced for years!

Opportunities as well as problems are enormous. I am more excited to think about the future trajectory of the market and human behaviors when such innovations enable a possibility beyond ones imagination.

Picture: Ratan Tata

Add On: News release – http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22575262/

Posted in automobile, Energy, fuel, Innovation, materials, pollution | 1 Comment »

Electric cars as power storage for grids – an entrepreneur goes ahead of the curve

Posted by evolvingwheel on December 5, 2007

This came as a very interesting idea to start with – electric and hybrid cars acting as storage facilities for extra power in an electrical grid. I will briefly state the background or the problem that seeks such an effort: Electric companies produce power that are drawn from the grid to different degrees at different times of the day. During the morning rush hour, the power draw is heavy. It slows down a bit during later periods before hitting another high during the evening hours. The draw also depends on demographics, usage, industrial density, and other attributes. However, it’s extremely difficult to store the power during off times. As stated, the storage capacity available is only for 1% of yield in the US.

Dr. Willet Kempton at the University of Delaware College of Marine and Earth Studies, has developed a system called V2G (vehicle-to-grid) that enables electric and hybrid cars to store this extra power and supply it back to the grid when idle. Gasoline driven cars are literally useless when idle. However, if connected to a grid node, electric cars can store the excess electricity and provide it back when not running. Rad the article [here] v2g.jpg

The concept is cool if there is a decent volume of participant cars. Nearly 100 vehicles available for two-thirds of the time could provide a megawatt of storage power. let’s now see the cost-benefit picture – The researchers estimate each car can provide $4,000 (£2,000) worth of storage to an energy company per year. It would cost roughly $600 (£300) to install the high-power connection system required. To encourage drivers to help out, power companies would need to pass on some of their savings, says Kempton.

Now certain areas that the true commercialization of this research hinges on are as follows:

  1. For every 1000 combustion-powered cars, how many electric/hybrid cars are there? In order to see a significant platform for implementation, what density of hybrid cars are required in cities and small towns? What is a possible timeline to reach that density?
  2. For density growth purpose – who will market for awareness? Will it be power companies, car companies, consumer advocacy groups, governments, or other third-party entities?
  3. What kind of infrastructure costs are associated with bringing the grid network to the individual consumer’s garage? How do you do that for cars that are parked on streets, office parking lots, and city paid garages?
  4. If volume is the question, how do you market the concept for its adoption within a favorable timeline? Is this just a very theoretical approach or does it have the possibility of mass acceptance? v2g_car.jpg
  5. How will this affect the car batteries in the long run? If the store-n-supply is hammering the battery, how will that contribute to the wear-and-tear of the power system of the hybrid? Are the researchers planning to work with car companies to make adjustments in the hybrid/electrical system? What is the incentive for the car companies to do that? Will the power companies reimburse them? What will be the cost-share and revenue structure around this?

Well, I have many questions. Thinking from the business implementation line kind off. Any inputs?

Posted in Energy, Environment, fuel, hybrid | 1 Comment »

How Brazil made it possible with ethanol? – Consumer hedging bets at the pumps

Posted by evolvingwheel on November 24, 2007

Last week my good friend Shalabh mentioned about a CNN program on Brazil’s independence from Middle East oil. The program delineated the story of ethanol and the growth of an economy around that. I got interested about it and started digging for more information. In fact I am also looking for that video. Meanwhile, I stumbled upon an article published by the Wall Street Journal early last year. The article has a very interesting perspective. It doesn’t talk much about the stats and the numbers. However, it gives a nice case study of Brazil’s long-term vision back in early 70’s. You can take a peek at [As Brazil Fills Up on Ethanol, It Weans Off Energy Imports]. sugar_cane_brazil.jpg

What I enjoyed most from reading the article is the progressive story of one country’s vision, dogged determination, strict enforcement, and controlled cost-guarantee (more on a short-term basis) to encourage a new scientific development and eventual mass acceptance. The good thing that the military ruler Gen. Ernesto Geisel achieved was a stringent adherence to the policy of mixing more ethanol to gasoline. Over time, this adherence paid off as the % of ethanol in gas rose to more than 25%.

One other thing I loved about the development is the production of cars that are capable of running both on ethanol and gasoline, and some totally on ethanol. The government forced Petrobas to provide outlets for ethanol at gas stations. This effort had an initial effect of visibility in spite of an investment that didn’t promise a ROI right away. But this push allowed car companies to come up with ethanol based models due to the infrastructural availability to support the promise. I talked about a similar case of infrastructural support for hydrogen fuel in the US in a previous article [First hydrogen cell bus in Texas – infrastructural impediment to economy of scale]. With a continuous support from the government through tax breaks and other investment incentives, soon other car companies started launching ‘flexible fuel‘ cars. Hence, availability of the fuel, vehicles manufactured to run on it, and a solid state mandate and support resulted in a mass scale acceptance of a new form of energy. — A great story!

Picture Courtesy Washington Post: Sugar cane arrives at a plant belonging to Cosan SA Industria e Comercio, the largest sugar and ethanol producer in Brazil. Most of Brazil’s ethanol comes from sugar cane.

Photo Credit: JC Franca, Bloomberg News

Posted in Energy, Environment, fuel, Innovation, investment | Leave a Comment »

First hydrogen cell bus in Texas – infrastructural impediment to economy of scale

Posted by evolvingwheel on November 7, 2007

UT Austin and Gas Technology Institute (GTI) have joined hands to roll out the first hydrogen cell driven commuter bus in Texas. The 22-foot bus operates on a hybrid system that utilizes power provided by advanced battery and a hydrogen fuel cell. The bus, manufactured by Ebus Inc. has the ability to run on highways and uses fuel efficient regenerative breaking. The best part – the tail pipe spews water vapor out. Read the full article [here]. hybrid_bus.jpg

One of the problems mentioned in the article is the lack of infrastructure for hydrogen delivery points. Hydrogen, a safe fuel, is expensive to transport and store. Gasoline infrastructure in place makes the fuel cheaper to transport and deliver. However, hydrogen delivery has so far limited the commercial rollout of hydrogen enabled cars. Further, oil lobby and giant oil corporations make it more difficult to create the environment to do more research and development of hydrogen distribution systems.

The biggest takeaway from this project is the creation of a fully integrated hydrogen fueling station that generates, compresses, stores, and dispenses hydrogen on-site. It will be worth watching how this effort unfolds. Will there be enough investments to create hydrogen stations all over? Some interesting questions:

  1. How will the government regulations and policies drive the commercial proliferation of hydrogen stations?
  2. What will be time curve for investment, innovation around this technology for efficiency, break-even point, and profitability? How will the curve look?
  3. Will the big car companies slowly create a product portfolio with hydrogen enabled cars? Will that start from the commercial vehicles first or from the individual sedans, etc?
  4. How will the awareness be generated? Will private sector pay for marketing or will the governments pay for marketing targeted towards awareness and mass acceptance?

This will be a major business case study for innovation-to-market where government policies and openness will dictate the dynamics of growth.

Posted in Energy, Environment, fuel, Innovation | 2 Comments »

Polluting the body by driving too long – How do we curb UFP emission?

Posted by evolvingwheel on November 1, 2007

You get behind the wheel in the morning, turn the FM on, pull the windows up, and put the air to RECYCLE – and you believe that you have warded off traffic pollution! NO – you just haven’t!! New environmental studies reveal the extent of pollution that our body gets exposed to while commuting in our cars. The findings are further scary when we are sitting inside a mass transit vehicle that runs on diesel. traffic_nyc.jpg

While we commute 6% of our daily time, it accounts for more than 60% of our exposure to polluted air. Diesel fumes and ultra fine particles (UFP) are the major culprits. The danger with UFP lies in the fact that they can penetrate cell walls and can diffuse throughout the system much faster than large sized pollutants. These exposures have been found to increase our susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases, breathing problems, and other chronic respiratory problems. Read the article [here].

A big concern will be the pollution exposures in communities of the developing world where lack of regulation and enforcement, corruption, and ignorance harm the population to a level that also goes undetected. Emerging economies should consider this problem more seriously. Regardless of nations, curbing of polluting sources should be addressed by technological and scientific innovations, awareness, proper governance, and diligent and uncorrupted enforcement.

I am attaching another article that may of interest. no_escape_from_diesel_exhaust_summary.pdf

Posted in Energy, Environment, fuel, pollution | 2 Comments »

Thermoelectric Organic Compund – Beyond just renewable energy

Posted by evolvingwheel on March 9, 2007

This one caught my attention for the properties of the organic molecule – create voltage when heated. The substance doesn’t conduct heat but rather electrons across itself. A very strong candidate for thermoelectricity.

Researchers at UC Berkeley successfully conducted experiments to prove that the molecule indeed generates voltage when exposed to heat. You may read more details about the substance and its properties from the link here. I am more interested in its commercial applications and business investments associated with it.

A lot of energy is lost in the form of heat when we derive power from coal, nuclear reactions, etc. These organic molecules can be stacked across heat exhaust devices generating electricity off the exhaust plume. How noble. However, the current challenge with them is the efficiency. That needs to be enhanced by altering the structure of the molecule. However, abundance and affordability make the research worthwhile. May be they could even try to dope this molecule with some other organic substrate and try to observe any change in efficiency.

This is a great consideration for investment analysis – over abundance, cheap versus low efficiency. Should you follow the track for more research or just try to commercialize a draft version and try to get the industry evolve it with changing applications, implementations, and adjustments around it? Another technical goal is to layer the organic molecules between metal sheets to make them thermoelectric. If this could be achieved in a cheap way commercially, the business prospects look promising.

Posted in Energy, Environment, fuel, Innovation, micron, nanotechnology | Leave a Comment »

Bye Bye Landfills? – A YES from Joseph Longo

Posted by evolvingwheel on March 2, 2007

What could be a better option than getting rid of landfills in large cities, cutting down the costs of hauling garbage to remote areas, and making fuel out of garbage disposal? Joseph Longo of Startech at Bristol, Connecticut says ‘NONE’! Longo’s plasma converter voraciously engulfs garbage of different scales and volumes with an initial electric pulse comparable to one of a police stun gun. The plasma is generated by a 650 volt current passing between electrodes. The resulting plasma arc is so intense that it disintegrates everything in it to its constituent elements by ripping of the molecular bonds. Output – synthetic gas and marketable fuels.

While I was reading the popular science article, I got excited thinking about the implications of this technology. Each of these plasma furnaces cost nearly $250 million. However, Longo shows the statistics where cost savings from landfills, dumping, and processing along with the fuel generation as a back-feed will turn the system into a profit within 10 years. 

The case study shows something more than the technology and prospects of innovation. It shows how cost of operations, natural resources, and human habits and consciousness make a business proposition lucrative over time. 10-15 years back, hauling trash to a landfill didn’t appear to be a very costly affair. However, today things have changed. The same business possibility today sounds like a gem! When start-ups develop a product, they may consider a time-path evolution of the utilization of the product and its multitude of facets. If they can draw a curve that satisfies the changes by adapting with the natural conditions and market demands, then the burnout may not appear too corrosive and harsh. Today, Longo is talking with governments and businesses from Asia, Latin America, and Europe. A tremendous growth in population along with consumption makes his invention a must-win!

[Read Article]

Picture: Courtesy StarTech Environmental Corp.

Posted in Energy, Environment, fuel, Innovation, investment | 4 Comments »